Phonetics

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 Phonetics

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
همسة براءة



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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: Phonetics   2011-02-22, 22:06

Phonetics is a multi-faceted branch of linguistics
with a long history reaching ancient times. Nevertheless, even nowadays
there are several opinions as to whether phonetics and phonology
should be treated as two separate disciplines whose scope of interest
overlap, or as one complex study having many different interests and
methods of inquiry. Generally, it is said that phonetics deals with
physical and physiological aspects of speech production, while
phonology is more abstract and focuses on psychological and functional
perspective. What is more, phonetics is also interested in how children
learn the sounds of their first language, what can be done in cases of
speech and hearing defects, how is speech perceived and produced. In
addition to this, phonetics also deals with investigating ways of
successful foreign language pronunciation teaching and designing means
of speech synthesis. Therefore, with such a wide range of concerns
phonetics has benefited from many seemingly unrelated scholarly
disciplines, such as psychology, anthropology, engineering as well as
language teaching and stenography. As phonetics is interested in the
way in which humans produce, transmit and receive speech it is, by and
large, sub-divided according to the focus of investigations. Thus
articulatory phonetics deals with the processes that take place in the
vocal tract when humans produce speech sounds. So it takes into
consideration the use of the vocal organs, muscle contractions, the
airflow and pressure in the vocal tract, as well as intonation,
phonation (modulations of the airstream), together with various manners
of articulation - for instance, lets consider the pronunciation of the
words 'debt management '. The first word consists of three sounds in
English: 'd' - plosive consonant, 'e' - short vowel, and 't' - another
plosive consonant. The three sounds combined together form the word
debt /det/. The second is made up of eight sounds. The properties of
each sound are analyzed by the articulatory phonetics. Accoustic
phonetics studies the physical features of speech sounds as they are
sent from mouth to ears. Acoustic phonetics, which deals only with
human speech sounds, needs to be distinguished from instrumental
phonetics which deals with the transmission of all types of sounds, by
means of computers, telephones, microphones and other instruments.
Because of the very nature of speech sounds, and the way they disperse
in the air, it is difficult to analyse their properties without the use
of the instruments mentioned above, therefore many methods of inquiry
have been adopted. Auditory phonetics focuses on how speech sounds are
perceived by the listeners, how they are heard and interpreted. As
articulatory phonetics studies the speech sounds from the point of view
of the speaker, auditory phonetics analyses them from the point of view
of the listener. This branch of linguistics is, at least partially,
based on the findings of such disciplines as anatomy and biology. Since
it is the brain that humans use in order to interpret the perceived
sounds auditory phonetics analyses also processes occurring in it while
listening to speech. Apart from the main three branches of phonetics
mentioned above there is also a relatively new sub-branch called
forensic phonetics that deals with speaker identification for example.
However, what is probably the most important achievement of phonetics
from the point of view of an ordinary language learner is the
description of speech sounds made by the native speakers. Thus, thanks
to the linguists occupied with this science a thorough division of the
English consonants and vowels together with the means of their
production and different peculiarities have been accounted for, thus
making the process of language learning much easier. As in the English
language the writing system does not reflect the pronunciation of words
a very useful tool for language learners is phonetic description.
Phoneticians have created the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
which shows the means and place of articulation of consonants and
vowels that users of English as a mother tongue use. Many dictionaries
published in the recent years have used the IPA to show how the English
words ought to be pronounced. The following chart shows the complete
IPA, therefore not all of the symbols shown there are used in the
description of the English language.



For English the sounds described in the IPA refer to Received
Pronunciation, and although different phonetic alphabets are also in
use the IPA alphabet is most often used by linguists and publishers of
recommended dictionaries.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
Roshan



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Phonetics   2011-08-14, 20:19

بارك الله فيييييييييييييك
موضوع رائع
ومفيد
وقيم
اجمل تحية
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Phonetics   2011-08-14, 20:20

اسعد الله قلوبكم وامتعها بالخير دوماً
أسعدني كثيرا مروركم وتعطيركم هذه الصفحه
وردكم المفعم بالحب والعطاء
دمتم بخير وعافية
لكم خالص احترامي
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
اسامة23



نوع المتصفح شروم

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Phonetics   2011-08-15, 02:11

بارك الله فيك اخيتي
على الموضوع الرائع
شكرا لك وسلمت يداك اخيتي
تقبلي مروري بكل مودة
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
لايتوفر على اوسمة بعد:

الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Phonetics   2011-08-15, 09:19

أج ــمل وأرق باقات ورودى
لردك الجميل ومرورك العطر
تــ ح ــياتيـ لكــ
كل الود والتقدير
دمت برضى من الرح ــمن
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
Phonetics
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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