موضوع: Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP 2011-02-23, 14:15
Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP Absolute and Variable Characteristics of ESP >Strevens' (1988):
I. Absolute characteristics:
ESP consists of English language teaching which is:
* designed to meet specified needs of the learner; * related in content (i.e. in its themes and topics) to particular disciplines, occupations and activities; * centred on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics, etc., and analysis of this discourse; * in contrast with General English.
II. Variable characteristics:
ESP may be, but is not necessarily:
* restricted as to the language skills to be learned (e.g. reading only); * not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology (pp.1-2)
I. Absolute Characteristics
* ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner; * ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves; * ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities.
II. Variable Characteristics
* ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; * ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English; * ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for learners at secondary school level; * ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students; * Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners (1998, pp. 4-5)
Types of ESP
David Carter (1983) identifies three types of ESP:
* English as a restricted language (e.g. ATC Language) * English for Academic and Occupational Purposes (e.g.English for Science and Technology (EST), b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and c) English for Social Studies (ESS). Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). An example of EOP for the EST branch is 'English for Technicians' whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is 'English for Medical Studies') * English with specific topics. (for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions.)
Characteristics of ESP Courses
Carter (1983) states that there are three features common to ESP courses: a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation, and c) self-direction.
“ESP is concerned with turning learners into users" (Carter, 1983, p. 134).
In order for self-direction to occur, the learners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when, what, and how they will study