Development of writing

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 Development of writing

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مُساهمةموضوع: Development of writing   2011-02-27, 22:59

By Kamil Wiśniewski, Aug. 12th, 2007

The oldest cave drawings representing important information were
made 20,000 years ago and clay tokens with marks suggesting some
writing attempts are about 10,000 years old, yet they are considered to
be only the precursors of writing and not fully developed writing
systems. The first systematic writing systems were developed about
5,000 years ago. Cave drawings are treated as a tradition of pictorial
art as the history of writing systems starts with pictograms.
A pictogram is a drawing which is used in a consistent way in order to represent an object. Thus, a form such as
might be used to represent sun. It is remarkable that thanks to the
conventional relationship between the symbol and its referent users of
different languages should understand the meaning of pictograms in a similar way, as with the contemporary pictograms in common use:

With time the sign representing sun might develop into a more symbolic and abstract form, like
for example, and start to be used with several additional meanings such
as ‘heat’ and ‘daytime’. Then, such a type of symbol is no longer a
pictogram, but it is a part of a system based on idea-writing called ideogram.
The difference between pictograms and ideograms is that the former
represent their referent in a conventional way and the latter are more
abstract and arbitrary, as well as less picture-like.
When a further development of the writing system occurred one symbol
started to represent one word. A writing system based on arbitrary
relationships between the written form and the object it represents is
known as word-writing or logogram. The oldest
logographic writing was used by the Sumerians about 5,000 years ago,
yet because of the shapes they used as symbols their writing system is
known as cuneiform. The arbitrary forms of logograms
have no resemblance to the entities they represent which the example of
cuneiform symbol for sun clearly shows: .
The next step in the development of writing was using symbols to represent the sounds of language. In rebus writing
the symbol for an entity starts to be used as the symbol for the spoken
word, subsequently used in any place the sound of the word occurs. In
such a way it is relatively easy to reconstruct how this system worked.
Taking the pictogram as an example, supposing it developed into the logogram
meaning ‘eye’. In rebus writing it could be used always when the sounds
which are pronounced when saying ‘eye’ are used as in ‘I’, or
‘cross-eye’. Therefore, you might refer to yourself as , or to the latter example as .
The last but one step of writing system development towards the most popularly used system nowadays is the syllabic writing. In syllabic writing
(also known as syllabary) each symbol represents one syllable. The
first fully developed syllabic writing systems were used by Phoenicians
in between 3,000 and 4,000 years ago. The final stage of the evolution
of writing systems so far is the inventing writing by use of an
alphabet. An alphabet is a set of symbols in which
one symbol represent one sound. Interestingly, the first alphabets of
languages such as Arabic and Hebrew consisted only of sounds
representing consonant. The history of the majority of alphabets used
nowadays can be traced back to the Phoenicians and their writing system.
Finch G. 1998. How to study linguistics. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Yule G. 1996. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
AZER16



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Development of writing   2011-02-27, 23:13

جزاك الله خيرا اختاه
و جعله الله في موازين حسناتك
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Development of writing   2011-03-01, 18:49

آمينـ ولكـ كلـ خير
أهلآ بكـ
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
Roshan



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Development of writing   2011-08-14, 20:16

بارك الله فيييييييييييييك
موضوع رائع
ومفيد
وقيم
اجمل تحية
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
لايتوفر على اوسمة بعد:

الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Development of writing   2011-08-14, 20:19

اسعد الله قلوبكم وامتعها بالخير دوماً
أسعدني كثيرا مروركم وتعطيركم هذه الصفحه
وردكم المفعم بالحب والعطاء
دمتم بخير وعافية
لكم خالص احترامي
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
Development of writing
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

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