What is Linguistics

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 What is Linguistics

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همسة براءة



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مُساهمةموضوع: What is Linguistics   2011-03-17, 20:42

What is Linguistics


Linguistics
is the scientific study of language. It endeavours to answer the
question - what is language and how is represented in the mind?
Linguists focus on describing and explaining language and are not
concerned with the prescriptive rules of the language (ie., do not
split infinitives). Linguists are not required to know many languages
and linguists are not interpreters.
The underlying
goal of the linguist is to try to discover the universals concerning
language. That is, what are the common elements of all languages. The
linguist then tries to place these elements in a theoretical framework
that will describe all languages and also predict what can not occur in
a language.
Linguistics is a social science that
shares common ground with other social sciences such as psychology,
anthropology, sociology and archaeology. It also may influence other
disciplines such as english, communication studies and computer
science. Linguistics for the most part though can be considered a
cognitive science. Along with psychology, philosophy and computer
science (AI), linguistics is ultimately concerned with how the human
brain functions.
Below are several different
disciplines within linguistics. The fields of phonetics, phonology,
morphology, syntax, semantics and language acquisition are considered
the core fields of study and a firm knowledge of each is necessary in
order to tackle more advanced subjects
The History of Linguistics


Frederick J. Newmeyer


Historical Linguistics


The
modern field of linguistics dates from the beginning of the 19th
century. While ancient India and Greece had a remarkable grammatical
tradition, throughout most of history linguistics had been the province
of philosophy, rhetoric, and literary analysis to try to figure out how
human language works. But in 1786, an amazing discovery was made: There
are regular sound correspondences among many of the languages spoken in
Europe, India, and Persia. For example, the English 'f' sound often
corresponds to a 'p' sound in, among others, Latin and Sanskrit, an
important ancient language of India:
ENGLISH LATIN SANSKRIT
father pater pitar
full plenus purnas
for per pari

Scholars
realized that these correspondences�found in thousands of words�could
not be due to chance or to mutual influence. The only reliable
conclusion was that these languages are related to one another because
they come from a common ancestor. Much of 19th century linguistics was
devoted to working out the nature of this parent language, spoken about
6,000 years ago, as well as the changes by which 'Proto-Indo-European',
as we now call it, developed into English, Russian, Hindi, and its
other modern descendants.
This program of historical
linguistics continues today. Linguists have succeeded in grouping the
5,000 or so languages of the world into a number of language families
sharing a common ancestor.
The Study of Language Structure


At
the beginning of the 20th century, attention shifted to the fact that
not only language change, but language structure as well, is systematic
and governed by regular rules and principles. The attention of the
world's linguists turned more and more to the study of grammar�in the
technical sense of the term the organization of the sound system of a
language and the internal structure of its words and sentences. By the
1920s, the program of 'structural linguistics', inspired in large part
by the ideas of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, was
developing sophisticated methods of grammatical analysis. This period
also saw an intensified scholarly study of languages that had never
been written down. It had by then become commonplace, for example, for
an American linguist to spend several years working out the intricacies
of the grammars of Chippewa, Ojibwa, Apache, Mohawk, or some other
indigenous language of North America.
The last
half-century has seen a deepening of understanding of these rules and
principles and the growth of a widespread conviction that despite their
seeming diversity, all the languages of the world are basically cut
from the same cloth. As grammatical analysis has become deeper, we have
found more fundamental commonalities among the languages of the world.
The program initiated by the linguist Noam Chomsky in 1957 sees this
fact as a consequence of the human brain being 'prewired' for
particular properties of grammar, thereby drastically limiting the
number of possible human languages. The claims of this program have
been the basis for a great deal of recent linguistic research, and have
been one of the most important centers of controversy in the field.
Books and journal articles routinely present evidence for or against
the idea that central properties of language are innate.
Language Use: Studies of Meaning



There
is also a long tradition in the study of what it means to say that a
word or sentence 'means' a particular thing and how these meanings are
conveyed when we communicate with each other. Two popular ideas about
what meanings are go back to the ancient Greeks: One is that meanings
are mental representations of some sort; another is that the meaning of
an expression is purely a function of how it is used. Both ideas have
launched research programs that are active today. They have been joined
by a third approach, building on work by philosophers such as Gottlob
Frege and Bertrand Russell, which applies formal methods derived from
logic and attempts to equate the meaning of an expression with
reference and the conditions under which it might be judged to be true
or false. Other linguists have been looking at the cognitive principles
underlying the organization of meaning, including the basic metaphoric
processes that some claim to see at the heart of grammar. And still
others have been examining the ways that sentences are tied together to
form coherent discourse.
Language Use: The Social Side of Language



In
the past 50 years, there has been increasing attention to the social
side of language as well as the mental. The subfield of
sociolinguistics has come of age in part as a consequence of post World
War II social movements. The national liberation movements active in
third world countries after the war posed the question of what would be
their official language(s) after independence, a pressing question,
since almost all of them are multilingual. This led to scholarly study
of the language situation in the countries of the world. In addition,
the movements for minority rights in the United States and other
Western countries has led to a close examination of social variation
that complements earlier work in geographical variation. Scholars have
turned the analytical tools of linguistics to the study of nonstandard
varieties like African American Vernacular English and Chicano Spanish.
And the women's movement has led many linguists to investigate gender
differences in speech and whether our language has to perpetuate sexual
inequality.


عدل سابقا من قبل همسة براءة في 2011-03-18, 00:38 عدل 1 مرات
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-03-17, 21:54

بارك الله فيكي اختاه
على هدا التمييز
الرائع في الانتقاء
للمواضيع الهامة
و المفيدة
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

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صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-03-18, 00:34

و فيكـ بآركـ ىللهـ
نورتـ اخيـ
دآئمآ تنور موآضيعيـ ألفـ شكر لكـ
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
harizi youcef



نوع المتصفح شروم

صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-03-18, 00:37

ألف شكر

ولكن لو كان الخط اكبر شويا

عينيا جحظوا Smilies 37
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معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://hafadhah.mazikaraby.com
همسة براءة



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-03-18, 00:39

آلعفو تمـ تكبير آلخط أيخيـ لقرآءة آلجيدة
أتمنى ـآ آلأستفآدة
نورتـ آلموضوعـ
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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Roshan



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-08-14, 20:11

بارك الله فيييييييييييييك
موضوع رائع
ومفيد
وقيم
اجمل تحية
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
همسة براءة



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

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صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-08-14, 20:12

اسعد الله قلوبكم وامتعها بالخير دوماً
أسعدني كثيرا مروركم وتعطيركم هذه الصفحه
وردكم المفعم بالحب والعطاء
دمتم بخير وعافية
لكم خالص احترامي
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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همسة براءة



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صلي على النبي

صل الله عليه وسلم


انجازاتي
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الوسام الأول


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2011-08-15, 09:27

أج ــمل وأرق باقات ورودى
لردك الجميل ومرورك العطر
تــ ح ــياتيـ لكــ
كل الود والتقدير
دمت برضى من الرح ــمن
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
yasmine nina



نوع المتصفح موزيلا

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صل الله عليه وسلم


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: What is Linguistics   2013-02-03, 17:56

thnx a lot
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What is Linguistics
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