In connected speech, many of the ‘small’ words we use very frequently tend to take on a different ‘shape’ from the one listed in the dictionary. All of these words belong to the category of function words, i.e. they are words that have little semantic content of their own, but tend to have more grammatical or referential function in relating content words or higher syntactic units to one another. Function words are essentially closed class words, such as pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliaries, etc. Below, you’ll find a table listing these words, together with their strong or dictionary form, as well as their potential weak forms. The following tables are based on Roach, 2000, with slight modifications/additions. In general, weak forms do tend not to occur in sentence-final position or in contrastive/emphatic use.