صلي على النبي
صل الله عليه وسلم
لايتوفر على اوسمة بعد:
|موضوع: سيرة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم باللغة الانجليزية 2011-04-23, 15:53|| |
How It All Began
Nearly four thousand years ago, in the Sumerian town of Ur in the
valley of the river Euphrates, lived a young man named Abraham. The
people of Ur had once worshipped Allah but as time passed they forgot
the true religion and started praying to idols, statues made of wood or
clay and sometimes even of precious stones. Even as a small child
Abraham could not understand how his people, and especially his father,
could make these images with their own hands, call them gods, and then
worship them. He had always refused to join his people when they paid
respect to these statues. He would leave town to sit alone and think
about heavens and the worlds around him.. He was sure his people were
doing wrong and so alone he searched for the right way. One clear night
as he sat staring at the sky he saw a beautiful shining star, so
beautiful that he cried out: 'This must be Allah!' He looked at it in
awe for some time, until suddenly it began to fade and then it
disappeared. He turned away in disappointment saying: I love not things
that set. (Koran vi.77)
On another night Abraham was again looking at the sky and he saw the
rising moon, so big and bright that he felt he could almost touch it.
He thought to himself: This is my Lord. (Koran vi.78) But it was not
long before the moon set as well. Then he said, Unless my Lord guides
me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray. (Koran vi.78)
Abraham then saw the beauty and splendor of the sunrise and decided
that the sun must be the biggest and most powerful thing in the
universe. But for the third time he was wrong, for the sun set at the
end of the day. It was then that he realized that Allah is the Most
Powerful, the Creator of the stars, the moon, the sun, the earth and of
all living things. Suddenly he felt himself totally at peace, because
he knew that he had found the Truth.
When he said unto his father and his folk: What do you worship? They said: We worship idols, and are ever devoted to them.
He said: Do they hear you when you cry? Or do they benefit or harm you?
They said: Nay, but we found our fathers acting in this manner.
He said: See now that which you worship, You and your forefathers! Lo!
they are (all) an enemy to me, except the Lord of the Worlds. Who
created me, and He guides me, And Who feeds me and waters me. And when
I sicken, then He heals me. And Who causes me to die, then gives me
life (again) And Who, I ardently hope, will forgive me my sin on the
Day of judgement. (Koran xxvi.70-82)
One day, while all the townspeople were out, Abraham angrily smashed
all the idols with his right hand except for one which was very large.
When the people returned they were furious.
They remembered the things Abraham had said about the idols. They had
him brought forth before everyone and demanded, 'Is it you who did this
to our gods, 0 Abraham?' Abraham replied, "But this their chief did it.
Ask them, if they are able to speak". The people exclaimed,"'You know
they do not speak".
' 'Do you worship what you yourselves have carved when Allah created
you and what you make?' Abraham continued, 'Do you worship instead of
Allah that which cannot profit you at all, nor harm you?' (Koran
Finally, Abraham warned them, Serve Allah, and keep your duty unto Him;
that is better for you if you did but know. You serve instead of Allah
only idols, and you only invent a lie. Lo! those whom you serve instead
of Allah own no provision for you. So seek your provision from Allah,
and serve Him, and give thanks unto Him, (for) unto Him you will be
brought back.(Koran xxix. 16-17)
The people of Ur decided to give Abraham the worst punishment they
could find: he was to be burnt to death. On the chosen day all the
people gathered in the centre of the city and even the King of Ur was
there. Abraham was then placed inside a special building filled with
wood. The wood was lit. Soon the fire became so strong that the people
were pushed back by the flames.
But Allah said: "O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham". (Koran xxi.69)
The people waited until the fire had completely died down, and it was
then that they saw Abraham still sitting there as though nothing had
happened! At that moment they were utterly confused. They were not,
however, moved by the miracle that had just happened before their very
Still Abraham tried to persuade his own dear father, who was named
Azar, not to worship powerless, un-seeing, un-hearing statues. Abraham
explained that special knowledge had come to him and implored his
father, 'So follow me and I will lead you on the right path. 0 my
father! Don't serve the Devil.' But Azar would not listen. He
threatened his son with stoning if he continued to reject the gods of
Ur. He ordered Abraham to leave the city with these words: 'Depart from
me a long while.' Abraham said, 'Peace be upon you! I shall ask my
Lord's forgiveness for you. Surely He was ever gracious to me.' (Koran
Imagine how terrible it must have been for him to leave his home,
his family and all that he knew, and set out across the wilderness into
the unknown. But at the same time, how could he have remained among
people who did not believe in Allah and who worshipped statues? Abraham
always had a sense that Allah cared for him and he felt Allah near him
as he traveled. At last, after a long hard journey, he arrived at a
place by the Mediterranean Sea, not far from Egypt. There he married a
noble woman by the name of Sarah and settled in the land of Palestine.
Many years passed but Abraham and his wife were not blessed with any
children. In the hope that there would be a child, and in keeping with
tradition, Sarah suggested that Abraham should marry Hagar, her
Egyptian handmaid. Soon after this took place, Hagar had a little boy
named Ishmael. Some time later Allah promised Abraham another son, but
this time the mother of the child would be his first wife, Sarah. This
second son would be called Isaac. Allah also told Abraham that from his
two sons-Ishmael and Isaac-two nations and three religions would be
founded and because of this he must take Hagar and Ishmael away from
Palestine to a new land
These events were an important part of Allah's plan, for the
descendants of Ishmael would form a nation from which would come a
great Prophet, who would guide the people in the way of Allah. This was
to be Muhammad (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). From the
descendants of Sarah's child, Isaac, would come Moses and Jesus.
So it was that Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael left Palestine. They
traveled for many days until finally they reached the arid valley of
Bacca ( later to be called Mecca), which was on one of the great
caravan routes. There was no water in the valley and although Hagar and
Ishmael only had a small supply of water left, Abraham left them there
knowing Allah would take care of them. Soon all the water was gone. The
child began to grow weak from thirst. There were two hills nearby, one
called Safa and the other Marwah. Hagar went up one hill and looked
into the distance to see if she could find any water,
but found none. So she went to the other hill and did the same. She did
this seven times. Then sadly she returned to her son, and to her great
surprise and joy she found a spring of water bubbling out of the earth
near him. This spring, near which the mother and child settled, was
later called Zamzam. The area around it became a place of rest for the
caravans travelling across the desert and in time grew into the famous
trading city of Mecca.
From time to time Abraham traveled from Palestine to visit his family
and he saw Ishmael grow into a strong young man. It was during one of
these visits that Allah commanded them to rebuild the Ka'bah-the very
first place where people had worshipped Allah. They were told exactly
where and how to build it. It was to be erected by the well of Zamzam
and built in the shape of a cube. In its eastern corner was to be
placed a black stone that had fallen to earth from heaven. An angel
brought the stone to them from the nearby hill of Abu Qubays.
Abraham and Ishmael worked hard to rebuild the Ka'bah and as they did
so they prayed to Allah to send a Prophet from among their descendants.
And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House,
(Abraham prayed): 'Our Lord! Receive this from us; Thou, only Thou, art
the All-hearing, the All-knowing; Our Lord! And make us submissive unto
Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our
ways of worship, and turn toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the
Relenting, the Merciful. Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a
messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations,
and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make
them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise. (Koran ii.127-9)
When the Ka'bah was completed, Allah commanded Abraham to call mankind
to pilgrimage to His Holy House. Abraham wondered how anyone could hear
his call. Allah said, 'You call and I will bring them.' This was how
the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah in Mecca was established and when Muslims
make the pilgrimage today they continue to answer the age-old call of
The Children Of Ishmael
Over the years Ishmael's children themselves had children. His
descendants increased and formed tribes which spread out all over
Arabia. One of these tribes was called Quraysh. Its people never moved
away from Mecca and always lived near the Ka'bah. One of the duties of
the leader of Quraysh was to look after those who came on pilgrimage to
the Ka'bah. The pilgrims would come from all over Arabia and it was a
great honor to provide them with food and water.
As time passed, however, the Arabs stopped worshipping Allah directly
and started bringing idols back with them from the different countries
they visited. These idols were placed at the Ka'bah, which was no
longer regarded as the Sanctuary of Allah, as Abraham had intended it.
It was, however, still respected by the Arabs. Around this time the
well of Zamzam disappeared beneath the sand.
Also at this time, Qusayy, one of the leaders of Quraysh, became ruler
over Mecca. He held the keys of the temple and had the right to give
water to the pilgrims, to feed them, to take charge of meetings, and to
hand out war banners before battle. It was also in his house that
Quraysh settled their affairs. After Qusayy's death, his son 'Abdu
Manaf, who had become famous during his father's lifetime, took over
the leadership of Quraysh. After him came his son Hashim. It is said
that Hashim was the first to begin the two great caravan journeys of
Quraysh, one in the summer to Syria and the north, and one in the
winter to Yemen and the south. As a result, Mecca grew rich and became
a large and important centre of trade.
One summer Hashim went north to buy goods to sell in Yemen. On his way
he stopped in Yathrib to trade in the market and there he saw a
beautiful woman. She was Salma', the daughter of 'Amr ibn Zeid, who was
from a much respected family.
Hashim proposed marriage to her and was accepted because he was an honorable and distinguished man.
In time, Salma' gave birth to a beautiful son and as some of his hair
was white they called him Shaybah, which in Arabic means grey-haired'.
Mother and son stayed in the cooler, healthier climate of Yathrib,
while Hashim returned to Mecca, but he would visit them each time he
took his caravan to the north. During one of these journeys, however,
Hashim became ill and died. Shaybah, a handsome, intelligent boy, grew
up in his uncle's house in Yathrib. He was proud of being the son of
Hashim ibn 'Abdi Manaf, the head of Quraysh, guardian of the Ka'bah and
protector of the pilgrims, even though he had not known his father, who
had died while Shaybah was very young.
At Hashim's death his brother al-Muttalib took over his duties and
responsibilities. He traveled to Yathrib to see his nephew, Shaybah,
and decided that as the boy would one day inherit his father's place,