pronunciation Glossary ....English Phonetics

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  pronunciation Glossary ....English Phonetics

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مُساهمةموضوع: pronunciation Glossary ....English Phonetics    2011-07-28, 15:40



These are some of the words used to talk about pronunciation. You will find them in the instructions for your Pronunciation Power program

Air flow
The flow or passage of air out of the mouth

Aspiration
A small "explosion" of air when you make a sound

Auditory
Hearing (not seeing)

Clusters (blended sounds)
Two or more sounds put together to make a single sound

Curl
A position of the tongue where the tongue is shaped in a curve, not flat

Flatten
A position of the tongue where the tongue is flat not round
Glide / Slide
Move the tongue as you say the sound

Hard palate
Hard part of the roof of the mouth

Intonation
Change in pitch of a sentence, up and down
Lengthen sound
Make the duration of the sound longer

Lips spread
Lips are open slightly and pulled back

Lower
Bottom of mouth

Pitch
Amount of height or depth of a sound

Pressed lips
Top and bottom lips touching

Protruded lips
Rounded lips, pushed out

Roof
Top part of your mouth, inside

Round lips
Make a circle with lips

Shorten sound
Make the duration of the sound shorter

Soft palate
Soft part of the roof of the mouth

Tap
Touch quickly

Tooth ridge
The hard area directly behind your top front teeth

Top of mouth / Roof of mouth
Area of tooth ridge, hard palate and soft palate

Unvoiced (voiceless)
The vocal cords do not vibrate

Upper
Top of mouth

Visual
Seeing (not hearing) i

Voiced
The sound is made by vibrating the vocal cords (voice box). To test whether you are making the sound voiced, put your fingers on your voice box. With a voiced sound you should feel a vibration. All vowels are voiced



Definitions in Phonetics



Phonetics


Phonetics deals with speech sounds themselves, how they are made (articulatory phonetics), how they are perceived (auditory phonetics) and the physics involved (acoustics phonetics).
phonology


Phonology deals with how these speech sounds are organised into systems for each individual language; for example: how the sounds can be combined, the relations between them and how they affect each other.
The speech organs


1.The nostrils

2. The lips ( Upper & lower )

3. The teeth ( Upper & lower)

4. The alveolar ridge: Between the top front teeth and the hard palate

5.The hard palate: Often called “the roof of the mouth”, a bony structure,hard and fixed in position

6. The soft palate: In a position that allows air to pass through the nose & through the mouth

7.The uvula: The end of the soft palate

8. The tongue: Can be moved into many different places and different shapes

9. The larynx: Contains 2 small bands of elastic tissue (vocal cords)

10. The pharynx: A tube beginning just above the larynx and ending in two, one part being the back of the mouth and the other being the beginning of the way though the nasal cavity
The most significant parts of the speech apparatus are the lungs, the vocal cords the oral cavity including the hard palat soft palate, the tongue, the lips and thenasal cavity.

How are speech sounds produced?


When we are making sounds, the air from the lungs comes up through the windwipe and arrives at the larynx. Then it goes through the vocal cords into the pharynx and up to the uvula. At this point, the air may go in either way. It may go into the oral cavity & get out through the mouth or it may go into the nasal cavity & get out through the nose.

How are oral sounds produced?


Oral sounds are the sounds in the production of which the soft palate is raised, blocking off the nasal cavity so that the airstream can only get out through the mouth.




How are nasal sounds produced?


Nasal sounds are the sounds in the production of which the soft palate is lowered, blocking off the oral cavity so that the airstream can only get out through the nose. There are only three nasal sounds in English




How are voiced sounds produced?


Voiced sounds are the sounds in the production of which the vocal cords come together so that the airstream is forced between them and the vocal cords vibrate.




How are voiceless sounds produced?


Voiceless sounds are the sounds in the production of which the vocal cords come apart so that the airstream passes freely between them and the vocal cords do not vibrate.



How are vowel sounds produced?


Vowel sounds are the sounds in the production of which none of the articulators come together so that the airstream is not obstructed and can get out freely.



How are consonant sounds produced ?


Consonant sounds are the sounds in the production of which two articulators come together so that the airstream is obstructed can not get out freely.

Phonemes


1. The smallest segment of sound that can distinguish two words.

2. Pairs of words such as "pit" - "bit" , "ship" - "sheep" which differ by only one phoneme are known as minimal pairs and one way to identify phonemes of any language is to look for minimal pairs.

3. Phonemes are abstract units that form the basis for writing down a language systematically and unambiguously.

4. The number of phonemes in a certain language is limited

5. There are 44 phonemes in English (24 consonants and 20 vowels).

6. The difference between phonemes is the functional difference, which can change the meaning of a word.

Allophones


1. No two realizations of a phoneme are the same. This is true even when the same word is repeated.

2. Variants of the same phoneme show consistent phonetic differences. Such consistent variants are referred to as ALLOPHONES.

3. Allophones are different realizations of the same phoneme.

4. /k/ in "key" and "car" is realized differently due to the difference in position of the two vowels.

5. In a way, a phoneme is seen as an ideal object while allophones as its physical manifestations.

6. The number of allophones in a language is unlimited.

7. The difference between allophones is the phonetic difference, which does not change the meaning of the word.
Consonants and Vowels :

1. Consonants:

It contains everything related to consonants in English language.



2.Vowels description:

It contains everything related to vowels in English language.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: pronunciation Glossary ....English Phonetics    2011-07-29, 03:08

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: pronunciation Glossary ....English Phonetics    2011-08-14, 20:01

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