is the sequence of events in a chronological order ( the passing of
time ). The writer respects this order or not depending on his aim.
is the change or the development of events or an event. Thus, having an
influence on the theme. Usually, this event would create a problem that
the character has to solve ( positive or negative effect on the
character: complication ).
Beginning and ending:
For instance, the writer starts his story from the childhood of the main character like in Jane Eyre
Or from the adolescance like in Pride and Prejudice .
we have Round ( main characters ): they start in a way and at the end they find solution and bring change to the story.
Flat ( secondary characters ): they do not change from
the beginning till the ending whatever happens the story, nothing
concerns them .
What concerns us in the characterization
is the characteristics of characters and the writer's value in deciding
to make him/her a main or flat character.
4-The point of view:
narrator is the one who is in charge of expressing the writer's point
of view. It could be 3rd person narration, 1st person( the narrator is a
character ) or omniscient narrator who knows everything about the
characters, their thoughts, feelings ..... Here, the writer uses his
voice, he gives life and death to his characters ( A God-like position
): he decides everything about his characters .
The time and the place when and where the events take place . Setting corresponds to the characters.
It is the central and dominating idea of the story .