replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the
18th century and still continuing in spme parts of the world. The I R
was the result of many fundamental, interrelated changes that changed
agricultural economies into industrial ones
2)-Why did it start in Britain:
I R began in Great Britain because social, political, and legal
conditions there were particularly favorable to change. Property rights,
such as those for patents on mechanical improvements were well
established. More importantly, the predictable, stable rule of law in
Britain meant that monarchs and aristocrats were less likely to
arbitrarily earnings or impose taxes than they were in many other
As a result, earnings were safer and ambitious business
people could gain wealth, social prestige and more easily than could
people on the European Continent.
These factors encouraged risk taking and investment in new business ventures, both crucial to economic growth.
and steel manufacture, the production of steam engines and textiles
were all powerful influences, as was the rise of a machine-building
sector able to spread mechanization to other parts of the Economy.
3)-Causes of the Industrial Revolution:
investment( global trade created an awareness that markets providing
cheaper machines, produced many factured goods: increasing domestic
The discovery of the New World ( served as markets and sources of raw materials )
Enclosure System: sending farmers away from their lands and towns were
the only place that could shelter them. So, this led to the growth of
traders and merchant class
The Magna Carta
The Glorious Revolution
The civil war
The Bill of Rights: chalenging the monarch's power
seeking economic gain to improve their diplomatic and military standing
by: encouragment of building roads, canals and rail roads.
: abolishment or limitation of craft guilds that sought to protect traditional labor methods.
c-Social and Cultural causes:
Exodus from rural lands to towns ( in search for employment ) and the rise of towns.
The increase of population.
People's personality( the ability to change through hard work ).
enlightenment: the belief in science and esteem for hard work as
material success that motivated inventors and manufacturers.
4)-Changes of the Industrial Revolution:
a- Changes in agriculture:
The invention of machinery played a big part in driving forward the I R .
Freeing up labour from the land to work in the new industrial mills of the 18th century.
The increase of food while cultivating the same amount of lands using new machinery of few workers.
b-Changes in Industry:
The change from household economy to industrial economy.
Workshop of the world( industrial ).
Bringing raw materials from the colonies and sending them back to the markets: getting a wealthier and healthier economy.
c- Political changes:
Only men with money and property rights could vote
No women could vote regardless of their wealth
The House of Lords could overrule any law passed by the House of Commons
Only men could be in the Houses of Commons and Lords
The Reform Act 1832:
It gave the right for the middle class to vote: those who had properties.
It gave the right for women to vote
However, Queen Victoria was conservative and therefor, refused it and said that women should stay at home.
It came from the word Charter and was a document of 6 demands
It is the reaction to the Reform Act which evicted the working class
chartists were the first mass working class that came after the Reform
Act, they revolted against the right of the middle class ( who had money
and properties ) to vote and wanted represetatives in Parliament
1-The right to vote for every man
2-No property qualification to vote
3-Payment of members of Parliament
4- Same seats for same members
5-Annual Parliament; to meet each year to discuss
However, it failed and didn't last long( 8 or 9 years ) because it was devided: 2 leaders
The 2nd Reform Act 1867:
All male workers could vote
Increased the number of the working class that could vote but only men
interval between the periods knew struggles between people of the
middle class to better and improve their living conditions via
negociations, strikes ....
Most of the people of the middle class
were illeterate because education was poor and devoted for rich people(
the aristocracy). However, there were some grammar schools where
children under the age of 11 could attend. So, they brought people from
other social classes who were educated and skilled in order to improve
their conditions. They ended having trade unions which created the