Reading as a Process
Reading is a
process that includes three phases: before-reading, during-reading , and
after-reading.In the before-reading phase, the reader establishes in
his mind a purpose and a plan for reading. He activates any prior
knowledge or personal experiences he has that relate to the topic of the
text. To activate this prior knowledge, the reader may, among other
things, think to himself about what he knows, talk to a friend,
participate in a brainstorming and/or mapping activity, which includes
discussion, and make predictions about what will happen in the reading.
the reader begins to read the written text — the during-reading phase.
While she reads, she will think about her purpose for reading and about
her prior knowledge. This may occur during short pauses she takes.
Throughout the actual reading of the text, the reader will be asking
herself questions such as “Is it making sense?” and “Am I understanding
what I’m reading?” This questioning is monitoring of comprehension. Not
only must the reader monitor her comprehension to ensure success, but
she must also have strategies to use when she does not understand.
Strategies include simple ones such as rereading a sentence or paragraph
or reading past an unknown word to use context clues to unlock the
The after-reading phase of the process occurs when the
reader finishes reading the written text.The reader takes time to think
about what he knew before the reading and what he learned or what
connections he made during the reading, and then he links this
information together to build new knowledge. At this point the reader
may talk to a friend, teacher, or parent or write about the material he
read. He may deepen his understanding of the material even further by
this interaction and, hopefully, will see that various new meanings or
nuances of meanings can be discovered in this way.Readers construct
meaning. It is the successful construction of meaning that is the goal
of all reading comprehension.