The Romans in Britain
43 AD to 410 AD
Romans came to
Britain nearly 2000 years ago and changed our country. Even today,
evidence of the Romans being here, can be seen in the ruins of Roman
buildings, forts, roads, and baths can be found all over Britain.
The Romans invaded other countries too. The Roman Empire covered much of Europe, north Africa, and the Middle East.
Who were the Romans?
The Romans lived in Rome, a city in the centre of the country of Italy
One day, some years before Jesus Christ was born, the Romans came to Britain.
Britain before the Romans (The Celts)
Who founded Rome? When did the Romans invade Britain? Why did the Romans invade Britain?
How long did the Romans stay in Britain?
Why did the Romans leave Britain? What did the Romans call London? Why was the Roman Empire important? What did the Romans give us?
Video on the Roman Empire
Who founded Rome?
According to the Roman legend, Romulus
was the founder of Rome. Romulus and his twin brother Remus were the
sons of the God Mars. When they were very young they were abandoned by
the banks of the River Tiber and left to fend for themselves. Luckily
for them they were found by a she-wolf who took pity on them fed them
with her milk. The boys were later found by a shepherd who raised them.
The boys grew up to be very strong and clever and they decided to build
a town on the spot where the Shepherd had found them. They named their
When did the Romans invade Britain?
First invasion - Caesar's first raid
In August 55 B.C. (55 years before
Jesus was born) the Roman general, Emperor Julius Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two Roman legions. After winning several battles against the Celtic tribes (Britons) in south-east England he returned to France.
Second invasion - Caesar's second raid
The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came to Britain
again landing at Walmer near Deal in Kent. This time he brought with him
no fewer than five legions
(30,000 foot soldiers) and 2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time
the Romans crossed the River Thames. After more fighting, the British
tribes promised to pay tribute to Rome and were then left in peace for
nearly a century.
Third and final invasion
Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. (43 years after
Jesus was born), Emperor Claudius organised
the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain. General Aulus
Plautius led four legions with 25,000 men, plus an equal number of auxiliary soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and Lympne.
(Click here for more information on the map of Kent in Roman times)
The biggest battle was fought on the banks of the River
Medway, close to Rochester. It went on for two days before the Celtic
Many tribes tried to resist the Romans. It took about
four years for the invaders to finally gain control over southern
England, and another 30 years for them to conquer all of the West
Country and the mountains and valleys of Wales. The battle for Yorkshire
and the remainder of northern England was still underway in AD 70.
The first Roman city was Camulodunum also called Colonia
Vitricencis. (We know it by the name of Colchester.) It was the seat
of Roman power and governance of Brittania until sacked during the
Boudiccan revolt. London was then established as a seat of governance,
and only became important after the Camulodunum event.
did the Romans invade Britain?
Why the Romans came to Britain is not quite certain. Two reasons have been suggested:
- The Romans were cross with Britain for helping the Gauls (now called the French)
fight against the Roman general Julius Caesar.
- They came to Britain looking for riches - land, slaves, and most of all, iron, lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold.
How long did the Romans stay in Britain?
The Romans remained in
Britain from 43 AD to 410 AD. That is almost four hundred years (four centuries).
Why did the Romans leave Britain?
Their homes in Italy were being attacked by fierce tribes and every soldier was needed.
What did the Romans call London?
The Romans called London ' Londinium '.
The River Thames was quick way to transport goods between
Britain and the
Continent. The Romans saw this and built the town of Londinium around
the river's main crossing point.
Find out more about Roman London
Why was the Roman Empire important?
The Romans, even today, play an important part in our lives.
Many of the things we do or have originated from the Romans.
The Romans gave us
The language we used today was developed from the
Romans. The Romans spoke and wrote in Latin and many of our words
are based on Latin words.
- The Calendar
Did you know that the calendar we use today is more than 2,000 years old? It
was started by Julius Caesar, a Roman ruler. It is based on the movement of
the earth around the sun, and so is called the 'solar calendar.' The solar
calendar has 365 days a year, and 366 days every leap year, or every fourth
year. The names of our months are taken from the names of Roman gods and rulers.
The month 'July,' in fact, is named after Julius Caesar himself!
- Laws and a legal system
The laws and ways we determine what to do with someone who is accused
of breaking a law came originally from
- The Census
The Roman Empire was huge and included
millions of people living over a large area. How did they keep track
of all these people? Easy! They counted
The Roman Empire began the practice of taking a census, or a 'count,'
of all the people within its boundaries every so often. Today, many
countries like ours take a census every 10
The Romans also gave us:
(bridges for water)